Human Resources Isn't A Thing We Do. It's The Thing That Run Our Business.
The first step involved in the recruitment process is planning. Here, planning involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outlining its major and minor responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay; starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special conditions, if any, attached to the job to be filled ”
Once it is known how many with what qualifications of candidates are required, the next step involved in this regard is to devise a suitable strategy for recruiting the candidates in the organisation.
The strategic considerations to be considered may include issues like whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be considered for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced, and what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organisation.
This step involves attracting job seekers to the organisation. There are broadly two sources used to attract candidates.
1. Internal Sources, and
2. External Sources
These have been just discussed, in detail, under 6.3 Sources of Recruitment.
Though some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as an integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the applications have been screened and shortlisted. Let it be exemplified with an example.
In the Universities, applications are invited for filling the post of Professors. Applications received in response to invitation, i.e., advertisement are screened and shortlisted on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only the screened applicants are invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview.
Job specification is invaluable in screening. Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are straightway eliminated from the selection process.
The techniques used for screening candidates vary depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications, de-selection tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for screening the candidates.
Given the considerable cost involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore, imperative.
The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:
(i) Salary of recruiters
(ii) Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement
(iii) Administrative expenses
(iv) Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled
(v) Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates
In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent employer to try to answer certain questions like: whether the recruitment methods are appropriate and valid? And whether the recruitment process followed in the organisation is effective at all or not? In case the answers to these questions are in negative, the appropriate control measures need to be evolved and exercised to tide over the situation.
However, such an exercise seems to be only rarely carried out in practice by the organisations employers. Having discussed recruitment process, it will be now relevant to have an idea about recruitment practices in India. The following section delineates the same.